The SI Weather

1:25 PM | Tropical activity in the eastern Atlantic

[Latest visible satellite image of the tropical Atlantic Ocean; courtesy Penn State e-wall]


All in all, the tropical season so far has been rather quiet in the Atlantic Basin given the frequency of wind shear over the Atlantic Ocean and the steady westward push of dry (Saharan-layer) air off of the west coast of Africa. There is now another tropical wave moving westward in the eastern Atlantic and it could develop into the second named system (Bertha) of the season later this week, but it will face some obstacles in its development.

[Tuesday analysis of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) using data from the Meteosat-9 satellite; courtesy University of Wisconsin - CIMSS]

First, this new wave will fight against some rather high wind shear in its vicinity later today and tonight. Varying wind speeds and directions with altitude (i.e., wind shear) is usually an inhibiting factor when it comes to the development of tropical systems. Second, as has been the case quite often this tropical season so far (and last year as well), dry air is pushing westward from western Africa and this wave has to endure more of this Saharan-layer dry air over the next couple of days (yellows, oranges; map courtesy University of Wisconsin - CIMSS). If it should survive the wind shear and dry air, this tropical wave would likely continue on a west-to-northwest path for the next few days and reach the Antilles Islands region of the eastern Caribbean Sea by the weekend. A second tropical wave follows close behind currently just off the west coast of Africa.

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2:30 PM | Atlantic Ocean now showing some life



The only named tropical system so far this season has been Arthur which formed off the southeast US coastline earlier this month and reached hurricane status (category 2). There is now a pretty healthy-looking tropical wave way out in the Atlantic Ocean and this could eventually become the first “Atlantic-type” tropical storm of the season, but it does have some dry air to penetrate in the near term.


The latest Saharan air layer tracking product (courtesy University of Wisconsin – CIMSS/NOAA-HRD) shows a large expanse of dry air off the west coast of Africa (“oranges and yellows”) that extends well out into the Atlantic Ocean and “in front” of the generally westward-moving new tropical disturbance. This tropical system will encounter some of this African dry air mass in the near term, but it also will be moving into a region with favorable sea surface temperatures of greater 80 degrees. Should the tropical wave survive its encounter with the dry air and develop into a named tropical storm, it would become known as Bertha. We’ll monitor its progress over the next few days here at

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10:45 AM | The sun has gone quiet…solar cycle 24 continues to rank as one of the weakest cycles more than a century

solar stuff gif


Ten days ago, the sun was quite active and peppered with several large spots. Now the sun has gone quiet and it is nearly completely blank. It appears that the solar maximum phase for solar cycle 24 may have been reached and it is not very impressive. It looks as if this solar cycle is “double-peaked” (see below) which is not all that uncommon; however, it is somewhat rare that the second peak in sunspot number during the solar max phase is larger than the first. In fact, this solar cycle continues to rank among the weakest on record which continues the recent trend for increasingly weaker cycles. The current predicted and observed size makes this the smallest sunspot cycle since Cycle 14 which had a maximum of 64.2 in February of 1906. Going back to 1755, there have been only a few solar cycles in the previous 23 that have had a lower number of sunspots during its maximum phase. For this reason, many solar researchers are calling this current solar maximum a “mini-max”. Solar cycle 24 began after an unusually deep solar minimum that lasted from 2007 to 2009. In fact, in 2008 and 2009, there were almost no sunspots, a very unusual situation during a solar minimum phase that had not happened for almost a century.


Consequences of a weak solar cycle
First, the weak solar cycle has resulted in rather benign “space weather” in recent times with generally weaker-than-normal geomagnetic storms. By all Earth-based measures of geomagnetic and geoeffective solar activity, this cycle has been extremely quiet. However, there is some evidence that most large events such as strong solar flares and significant geomagnetic storms tend to occur in the declining phase of the solar cycle. In other words, there is still a chance for significant solar activity in the months and years ahead.

Second, it is pretty well understood that solar activity has a direct impact on temperatures at very high altitudes in a part of the Earth’s atmosphere called the thermosphere. This is the biggest layer of the Earth’s atmosphere which lies directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere. Thermospheric temperatures increase with altitude due to absorption of highly energetic solar radiation and are highly dependent on solar activity.

Finally, if history is a guide, it is safe to say that weak solar activity for a prolonged period of time can have a negative impact on global temperatures in the troposphere which is the bottom-most layer of Earth’s atmosphere - and where we all live. There have been two notable historical periods with decades-long episodes of low solar activity. The first period is known as the “Maunder Minimum”, named after the solar astronomer Edward Maunder, and it lasted from around 1645 to 1715. The second one is referred to as the “Dalton Minimum”, named for the English meteorologist John Dalton, and it lasted from about 1790 to 1830. Both of these historical periods coincided with below-normal global temperatures in an era now referred to by many as the “Little Ice Age”. In addition, research studies in just the past couple of decades have found a complicated relationship between solar activity, cosmic rays, and clouds on Earth. This research suggests that in times of low solar activity where solar winds are typically weak; more cosmic rays reach the Earth’s atmosphere which, in turn, has been found to lead to an increase in certain types of clouds that can act to cool the Earth.

The increasingly likely outcome for an historically weak solar cycle continues the recent downward trend in sunspot cycle strength that began over twenty years ago during solar cycle 22. If this trend continues for the next couple of cycles, then there would likely be more talk of another “grand minimum” for the sun. Some solar scientists are already predicting that the next solar cycle, #25, will be even weaker than this current one. However, it is just too early for high confidence in these predictions since some solar scientists believe that the best predictor of future solar cycle strength involves activity at the sun’s poles during a solar minimum and the next solar minimum is still likely several years away.


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12:15 PM | Kind of a “polar vortex” look to next week’s weather maps


[12Z Euro 500 mb height anomaly forecast map for next Tuesday, July 15th; map courtesy Weather Bell Analytics at]


Last summer, the hottest weather in the Mid-Atlantic region took place in the week between July 14th and July 20th with Philadelphia, for example, averaging an impressive 95 degrees for high temperatures over the 7-day period. The same time period this summer - which happens to be next week - looks like it may have a far different result and the upper level weather maps may actually resemble the “polar vortex” pattern made famous this past winter.

Today's European computer forecast model indicates there will be an anomalously strong upper level low situated over the central Great Lakes in much the same manner that occurred frequently during the past winter (see above; 12Z Euro forecast map courtesy Weather Bell Analytics at Also, in much the same manner as this past winter, the coldest air relative-to-normal is likely to occur over the Great Lakes and Upper Midwest, but cooler-than-normal air is likely to extend all the way to the Mid-Atlantic coastline. Normal high temperatures have now climbed to 87 degrees in Philly, 89 in DC, and 84 at Central Park, NY and these levels are more than likely not going to be reached for at least a portion of next week. The cold front that will usher in this cool air mass is likely to arrive in the Mid-Atlantic region in the Monday/Monday night time frame - perhaps associated with numerous showers and thunderstorms.

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